Fact: Ligamentous Injuries can result from CAD trauma and result in significant permanent impairment.
Ligamentous injury is at the core of all CAD
Ligaments have poor vascular (blood) supply and don’t heal well.
Ligaments that are stretched beyond their anatomical limit suffer “plastic deformity” (they stayed stretched permanently).
Fact: Ligament Injury Causes Spinal Instability (Laxity)
- Whiplash injury to the anterior spinal structures in the lower cervical spine can result in instability in extension, axial rotation and lateral bending (Stemper et al., 2005).
- All 3 grades of strain leave the ligament with permanent bodily damage (Torrez & Dupree, 2005).
- No treatment currently exists to restore an injured tendon or ligament to its normal condition (Birth Defects research (Part C) 75:226-236, 2005).
- Despite remodeling (healing), the biomechanical and mechanical properties of healed tendon tissue never match those of intact tendons. (The Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburg and Ireland, Surgeons 3:5; 309-316 2005).
Fact: Upper Cervical Ligament Injury causes Cervicogenic Headaches
Connective Tissue Bridges between Muscle and Dura in the Upper Cervical Spine
Fact: CAD trauma can cause over-stretching of cervical ligaments beyond their anatomical limit with “plastic deformity”.
The over-stretching, or excessive distension (hyper-elongation), of the cervical ligaments can result in “plastic” deformity” vs. “elastic deformity”, resulting in major permanent destruction of the ligament.
Fact: “Sub-failure” (stretch only) Ligamentous Injuries can be as serious as a complete tear.
Biomechanical research has proven the following:
- Stretch (distension) damage of ligaments resulted in abnormal laxity equal to having “no ligamentous support” at all!!!
- Partial injury to these ligaments resulted in laxity equivalent to “completely compromised” ligaments.
- The Journal of Biomechanics recently reported that WAD trauma causes damage to the alar ligaments in 66% of whiplash victims. (Fice)